Aortic stenosis

Etiology: calcification, bicuspid valve, rheumatic fever Normal size: 3~4cm Severity- 1.5~3(mild), 1~1.5(moderate), <1(severe) Presentation- Angina(5), syncope(3), failure(2) PE: pulsus parvus et tardus, Harsh crescendo-decrescendo murmur Medication- B-blocker, CCB, diuresis, digoxin Surgery indication 1.AVA<1, Vmax>4, mean gradient>40 2.Asymptomatic+EF<50 3.Symptomatic Surgery: TAVI, Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty, Ross procedure